Chapter 2 | Higher Education in Science and Engineering
Degree mobility: The physical crossing of a national border to enroll in a degree program at the tertiary level in the country of destination. The degree program would require the students’ presence for the majority of courses taught.
European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development data on the EU include all 28 nations.
First university degree: A terminal undergraduate degree program; these degrees are classified as “level 6” or “level 7” in the 2011 International Standard Classification of Education, which was developed by UNESCO. Individual countries use different names for the first university degree (e.g., corso di Laurea in Italy, diplom in Germany, licence in France, and bachelor’s degree in the United States and in Asian countries).
Internationally mobile students: Students who have crossed a national or territorial border for purposes of education and are now enrolled outside their countries of origin. This term refers to degree mobility in data collected by UNESCO/UIS, OECD, and Eurostat and excludes students who travel for credit mobility.
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC): An online course made available over the Internet without charge to an unlimited number of people.
Natural sciences: Include agricultural; biological; computer; earth, atmospheric, and ocean; and physical sciences and mathematics.
Net tuition revenue: Total revenue from tuition and fees (including grant and loan aid students use to pay tuition); excludes institutional student aid that is applied to tuition and fees.
Science and engineering fields: Degree award data from the Department of Education cover degrees in the following science and engineering fields: astronomy, chemistry, physics, atmospheric sciences, earth sciences, ocean sciences, mathematics and statistics, computer sciences, agricultural sciences, biological sciences, psychology, social sciences, and engineering. At the doctoral level, the medical and health sciences are included under science and engineering because these data correspond to the doctor’s-research/scholarship degree level which are research-focused degrees.
Underrepresented minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians and Alaska Natives are considered to be underrepresented minorities in S&E.
Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations
ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
BPS: Beginning Postsecondary Students
C-BERT: Cross-Border Education Research Team
DOD: Department of Defense
EACEA: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
EU: European Union
FTE: full-time equivalent
GAO: U.S. Government Accountability Office
GDP: gross domestic product
GSS: Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering
HBCU: historically black college or university
HHE: high Hispanic enrollment
HSI: Hispanic-serving institution
IIE: Institute of International Education
IPEDS: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System
ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education
ISCED-F: ISCED Fields of Education and Training
MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MOOC: massive open online course
MSI: minority-serving institution
NCES: National Center for Education Statistics
NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
NIH: National Institutes of Health
NPSAS: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study
NSB: National Science Board
NSCG: National Survey of College Graduates
NSF: National Science Foundation
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OPT: optional practical training
PSM: Professional Science Master’s
R&D: research and development
RA: research assistantship
S&E: science and engineering
SEVIS: Student and Exchange Visitor Information System
STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
TA: teaching assistantship
TCU: tribal college or university
UIS: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization