Overview of the State of the U.S. S&E Enterprise in a Global Context
Commercial knowledge-intensive (KI) services: Knowledge-intensive services that are generally privately owned and compete in the marketplace without public support. These services are business, information, and financial services.
European Union (EU): The EU comprises 28 member nations: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Unless otherwise noted, data on the EU include all 28 nations.
High-technology manufacturing industries: Industries formerly classified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that spend a high proportion of their revenue on R&D. These industries consist of aerospace; pharmaceuticals; computers and office machinery; semiconductors and communications equipment; and measuring, medical, navigation, optical, and testing instruments.
Information and communications technologies (ICT) industries: A subset of knowledge- and technology-intensive industries, consisting of two high-technology manufacturing industries, computers and office machinery and communications equipment and semiconductors, and two knowledge-intensive services industries, information services and computer services, which is a subset of business services.
Invention: The development of something new that has a practical bent—potentially useful, previously unknown, and nonobvious.
Innovation: The implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organization method in business practices, workplace organization, or external relations (OECD/Eurostat 2005).
Knowledge transfer: The process by which technology or knowledge developed in one place or for one purpose is applied in another place for the same or a different purpose. This transfer can take place freely or through exchange and either deliberately or unintentionally. In the federal setting, technology transfer is the process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilities developed under federal R&D funding are used to fulfill public and private needs.
Knowledge- and technology-intensive (KTI) industries: Those industries that have a particularly strong link to science and technology. These industries are five service industries (financial, business, communications, education, and health care); five high-technology manufacturing industries (aerospace, pharmaceuticals, computers and office machinery, semiconductors and communications equipment, and measuring, medical, navigation, optical, and testing instruments); and five medium-high-technology industries (motor vehicles and parts, chemicals excluding pharmaceuticals, electrical machinery and appliances, machinery and equipment, and railroad and other transportation equipment).
Knowledge-intensive (KI) services industries: Those industries that incorporate science, engineering, and technology into their services or the delivery of their services, consisting of business, information, education, financial, and health care.
Medium-high-technology manufacturing industries: Industries formerly classified by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that spend a relatively high proportion of their revenue on R&D. These industries consist of motor vehicles and parts, chemicals excluding pharmaceuticals as well as electrical machinery and appliances, machinery and equipment, and railroad and other transportation equipment.
Research and development (R&D): Research and experimental development comprise creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge—including knowledge of humankind, culture, and society—and its use to devise new applications of available knowledge.
Basic research: Experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view.
Applied research: Original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge; directed primarily, however, toward a specific, practical aim or objective.
Experimental development: Systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products or processes or to improving existing products or processes (OECD 2015).
R&D intensity: A measure of R&D expenditures relative to size, production, financial, or other characteristics for a given R&D-performing unit (e.g., country, sector, company). Examples include R&D-to-GDP ratio and R&D-to-value-added output ratio.
Value added: A measure of industry production that is the amount contributed by a country, firm, or other entity to the value of the good or service. It excludes double-counting of the country, industry, firm, or other entity purchases of domestic and imported supplies and inputs from other countries, industries, firms, and other entities.
Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations
ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
EC: European Commission
EU: European Union
FFRDC: federally funded R&D center
GDP: gross domestic product
HT: high technology
ICT: information and communications technologies
IPEDS: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System
IT: information technology
KI: knowledge intensive
KTI: knowledge- and technology-intensive
MHT: medium-high technology
MNC: multinational corporation
NCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
PPP: purchasing power parity
R&D: research and development
ROW: rest of world
S&E: science and engineering
S&T: science and technology
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USPTO: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
WebCASPAR: Integrated Science and Engineering Resources Data System
WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization