Working papers are intended to report exploratory results of research and analysis undertaken by the National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES) within the National Science Foundation (NSF). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this working paper do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF. This working paper has been released to inform interested parties of ongoing research or activities and to encourage further discussion of the topic.
The Nonprofit Research Activities (NPRA) Survey data presented in this working paper do not meet the quality criteria outlined in NCSES's statistical standards. NCSES does not consider all the estimates in this report to be official statistics.