Key to Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACGR: adjusted cohort graduation rate

ACS: American Community Survey

ACS: American Competitiveness Survey

ADEA: Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

AFFOA: Advanced Functional Fabrics of America

AFGR: averaged freshman graduation rate

ANBERD: Analytical Business Enterprise R&D

AP: Advanced Placement

ARC: Average of Relative Citations

ARM: Advanced Robotics for Manufacturing

ARMI: Advanced Regenerative Manufacturing Institute

ARPA-E: Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy

ARRA: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

AUTM: Association of University Technology Managers

BEA: Bureau of Economic Analysis

BLS: Bureau of Labor Statistics

BPS: Beginning Postsecondary Students

BRDIS: Business R&D and Innovation Survey

CAGR: compound average annual growth rate

C-BERT: Cross-Border Education Research Team

CEMI: Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

CIS: Community Innovation Survey

CPS: Current Population Survey

CRADA: cooperative R&D agreement

CRDC: Civil Rights Data Collection

CREDO: Center for Research on Education Outcomes

DHS: Department of Homeland Security

DMDII: Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute

DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals

DOC: Department of Commerce

DOD: Department of Defense

DOE: Department of Energy

EACEA: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency

EC: European Commission (Overview)

ECDS: Early Career Doctorates Survey

ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten

ED: Department of Education

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency

EPSCoR: Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

ESSA: Every Student Succeeds Act

EU: European Union

FDI: foreign direct investment

FedScope: Federal Human Resources Data

FFRDC: federally funded research and development center

FLC: Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer

FTE: full-time equivalent

FY: fiscal year

G20: Group of Twenty

GAO: Government Accountability Office

GBARD: government budget appropriations for R&D

GDP: gross domestic product

GE: genetically engineered

GED: General Educational Development

GERD: gross domestic expenditures on R&D

GHG: greenhouse gas

GM: genetically modified

GMO: genetically modified organism

GMU: George Mason University

GPT: general purpose technology

GSS: General Social Survey

GSS: Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering

GUF: general university fund

HBCU: historically black college or university

HDI: Human Development Index

HE: higher education

HERD: Higher Education Research and Development Survey

HHE: High Hispanic enrollment

HHS: Department of Health and Human Services

HPC: high-performance computing

HS: Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, or Harmonized System

HSI: Hispanic-serving institution

HSLS: High School Longitudinal Study

HT: high technology

IACMI: Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation

IB: International Baccalaureate

ICT: information and communications technologies

IDeA: Institutional Development Award

IEA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement

IEA: International Energy Agency

IIE: Institute of International Education

IMF: International Monetary Fund

IOF: involuntarily out-of-field

IoT: Internet of Things

IPC: International Patent Classification

IPEDS: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System

IPO: initial public offering

IPUMS: Integrated Public Use Microdata Series

IRC: Internal Revenue Code

IRS: Internal Revenue Service

ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education

ISCED-F: ISCED Fields of Education and Training

ISIC: International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities

ISO: International Organization for Standardization

IT: information technology

ITC: Investment Tax Credit

IUCRC: Industry–University Cooperative Research Centers Program

K–12: kindergarten through 12th grade

KI: knowledge intensive

KTI: knowledge- and technology-intensive

LIFT: Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow

MEP: Manufacturing Extension Partnership

MER: market exchange rate

MFP: multifactor productivity

MHT medium-high technology

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MNC multinational corporation

MNE: multinational enterprise

MOOC: massive open online course

MSI: minority-serving institution

NAEP: National Assessment of Educational Progress

NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement

NAGB: National Assessment Governing Board

NAICS: North American Industry Classification System

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASF: net assignable square feet

NCES: National Center for Education Statistics

NCRPA: National Cooperative Research and Production ActNCSES: National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics

NCTQ: National Center for Teaching Quality

nec: not elsewhere classified

NECTA: New England City and Town Area

NEH: National Endowment for the Humanities

NELS: National Education Longitudinal Study

NGA: National Governors Association

NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards

NIH: National Institutes of Health

NIIMBL: National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals

NIPA: national income and product accounts

NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology

NLR: National Lambda Rail

NLS: National Longitudinal Study

NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPL: nonpatent literature

NPSAS: National Postsecondary Student Aid Study

NRC: National Research Council

NSB: National Science Board

NSCG: National Survey of College Graduates

NSCI: National Strategic Computing Initiative

NSF: National Science Foundation

NSLP: National School Lunch Program

NSRCG: National Survey of Recent College Graduates

NTIA: National Telecommunications and Information Administration

NTPS: National Teacher and Principal Survey

OA: open access

OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OES: Occupational Employment Statistics

ONP: other nonprofit organization

OPEC: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPM: Office of Personnel Management

OPT: optional practical training

OSTP: Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President

OWH: other Western Hemisphere

PISA: Program for International Student Assessment

PPP: purchasing power parity

PSM: Professional Science Master’s

PST: professional, scientific, and technical

PTC: Production Tax Credit

R&D: research and development

R&E: research and experimentation

RA: research assistantship

RAPID: Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment

RC: relative citation

RD&D: research, development, and demonstration

REMADE: Reducing Embodied-energy and Decreasing Emissions in Materials Manufacturing

ROW: rest of world

S&E: science and engineering

S&T: science and technology

SASS: Schools and Staffing Survey

SBA: U.S. Small Business Administration

SBIR: Small Business Innovation Research

SciELO: Scientific Electronic Library Online

SDR: Survey of Doctorate Recipients

SED: Survey of Earned Doctorates

SEH: science, engineering, and health

SEP: standard essential patent

SES: socioeconomic status

SESTAT: Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System

SET: science, engineering, and technology

SEVIS: Student and Exchange Visitor Information System

SOC: Standard Occupational Classification

STEM: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics

STTR: Small Business Technology Transfer

TA: teaching assistant

TCU: tribal college or university

TEL: technology and engineering literacy

TFP: total factor productivity

TIMSS: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

UIS: UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UK: United Kingdom

UN: United Nations

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

URM: underrepresented minority (black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, and American Indian or Alaska Native)

USCIS: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services

USDA: Department of Agriculture

USPTO: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

WebCASPAR: Integrated Science and Engineering Resources Data System

WIPO: World Intellectual Property Organization

WTO: World Trade Organization

XSEDE: Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment