Permissions and Citation

Science and Engineering Indicators and other titles published by the National Science Board are works of the U.S. federal government and carry no claim to copyright. Thus, material from these reports may be freely used as in the public domain. We do request that use of work from these reports be credited. We appreciate voluntary reporting of use and, when possible, being notified when work that cites our sources is published.

The recommended citation for this report is: National Science Board. 2018. Science and Engineering Indicators 2018. NSB-2018-1. Alexandria, VA: National Science Foundation. Available at