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National Science Foundation
Special Report - These Crocs Are Made for Biting!
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image - read captionPositive and negative feedbacks between clouds and climate.
Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation
JPG (87.3 KB) | PDF (2.03 MB)
image - read captionImage taken by photographer David Thoreson during his 28,000 mile sailing voyage to circumnavigate the Americas to raise awareness about ocean health.
Credit: David Thoreson
Image size: 293 KB

image - read captionAn ice crystal. Clouds are composed of many small droplets of water or ice crystals that form around condensation nuclei – usually a small particle of dust, ash or smoke. Among the many micro-processes that help determine whether clouds will produce precipitation are the shapes of their ice crystals and the speed and efficiency at which these crystals grow and/or collide to reach sizes that are large enough to fall from clouds.
Credit: © University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
Image size: 65 KB
image - read captionNSF-funded Paul DeMott of Colorado State University provides an insider's view (literally) of clouds.
Credit: National Science Foundation
MOV 1.5 GB
image - read captionRadar imagery of severe thunderstorms over South Dakota on July 23, 2010. These storms produced a record-setting hailstone measuring 8.0 inches in diameter, 18.625 inches in circumference and weighing an amazing 1.9375 pounds!
Credit: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Image size: 347 KB (Animation)
image - read captionCommon cloud types at their approximate altitudes. (Stratus typically form lower than cumulus.) (not to scale)
Credit: ©UCAR
Image size: 54 KB
image - read captionA simulation created by the Community Earth System Model (CESM) showing water vapor that is available to be precipitated as snow or rain during one month in preindustrial times.
Credit: Visualization created by Jamison Daniel, ORNL
MOV 6.85 MB

image - read captionClimate models are based on a three-dimensional mesh covering the Earth and reaching high into the atmosphere. At regularly spaced intervals, or grid cells, the models use the laws of physics to compute atmospheric and environmental variables, simulating exchanges among gases, particles and energy.
Credit: Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation
JPG (161 KB) | PDF (1.49 MB)

image - read captionA snow crystal. This image was taken using a specially designed snowflake photomicroscope.
Credit: Kenneth Libbrecht, Caltech
Image size: 180 KB
image - read captionTaken from a larger simulation of 20th century climate generated by the new Community Climate Model (CESM), this image depicts several environmental variables including sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations. One way that scientists verify a model's accuracy is by simulating past conditions and then comparing the model results to observed conditions.
Credit: © University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
Image size: 3.77 MB
image - read captionNSF-funded Amy Clement of the University of Miami helps clear the air about the relationships between clouds and climate change.
Credit: National Science Foundation
MOV 1.5 GB
image - read captionCarlsbad, California, June 2010.
Credit: Kristina Rebelo
Image size: 279 KB
image - read captionA series of mature thunderstorms in southern Brazil. This photo was taken in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle.
Credit: Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center
Image size: 6.74 MB
image - read captionCloud vortices off Heard Island in the South Indian Ocean.  When cloud droplets merge together and form larger droplets, the space between them grows.  These larger spaces allow the cloud to absorb more light, making it appear gray or black instead of white.
Credit: Jeff Schmaltz, Earth Observing System, NASA
Image size: 345 KB
image - read caption Specially equipped plane used by Paul DeMott to collect samples of air entering clouds, or to extract cloud particles from their interiors to measure in real-time their content of ice nuclei. This research is improving our understanding of ice formation in cold clouds and its dependence on ice nuclei.
Credit: John Eisele, Colorado State University
Image size: 51 KB
image - read captionView of clouds from an airplane above Michigan, September 2010
Credit: Kristina Rebelo
Image size: 3.07 MB
image - read captionCumulonimbus cloud with a rain shaft, an area in the cloud where it is raining.
Credit: © University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
Image size: 348 KB
image - read captionFrom All Sides, Now
MP4 76.3 MB
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The Big Question
Full article PDF (223 KB)

Computing Clouds
Full article PDF (242 KB)

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